Pulkowskimetoden?

Diskussioner kring händelser under första världskriget & mellankrigstiden.
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hangatyr
Medlem
Inlägg: 1466
Blev medlem: 04 apr 2002 11:38
Ort: Södertälje

Inlägg av hangatyr » 03 okt 2002 06:26

vild gissning: om man inte riktigt vet vart lede fi finns, så kanske man lägger en eldmatta som skjuts enligt något sorts förkonfigurerat mönster över området där fienden tros befinna sig.

Haegg
Medlem
Inlägg: 187
Blev medlem: 25 mar 2002 09:58

Inlägg av Haegg » 03 okt 2002 08:08

Ett citat:

"Bruchmueller's plans were broken down into separate phases which used surprise as a major element. The guns were not registered by firing aiming shots, a mathematical formula - the "Pulkowski method" - was used so that the first the enemy knew of an attack was the first shell landing."

från: http://homepage.ntlworld.com/howard.mar ... ckson.html

Jag hoppas det gjorde saken något klarare.

Stefan
Medlem
Inlägg: 3469
Blev medlem: 09 apr 2002 10:10

Pulkowski-metoden

Inlägg av Stefan » 03 okt 2002 14:05

Den gick alltså ut på att inte skjuta till måls tills man sköt in sig, utan att med kännedom om varje enskild kanons egenskap, skick, vädret, vindar; kunna ställa in dess skikte och få bra träffar mot kända mål utan att behöva en lång inskjutning.

"The following is excerpted from David T. Zabecki, "Steel Wind: Colonel George
Bruchmüller and the Birth of Modern Artillery", ISBN 0-275-94750-5, which I
highly recommend to anyone studying German WWI artillery tactics.

Ray

pp. 48-49:

In early 1918 Bruchmüller supported the introduction of a new system of
predicting equivalent registration corrections based on measurements of
weather conditions, the wear of gun tubes, and other conditions that
artillerymen today call variations from standard. This technique of Predicted
Fire had been developed by Captain Erich Pulkowski, an instructor at the Foot
Artillery School at Maubeuge. Despite a great deal of internal friction (see
Chapter 6), Bruchmüller succeeded in forcing the German Army to use the
Pulkowski Method (Pulkowski Verfahren) during the great offensives of 1918.
Pulkowski's system had two main components. What he called Tageseinfluesse
(Daily Influences) were based on the ballistic effects caused by changes in
the weather: wind direction, wind speed, air temperature, air density, and
the temperature of the powder. Daily Influences changed with the weather, but
they could be measured periodically and firing data could be updated from
correction factors listed in tables. By the spring of 1918, the German Army
had developed a system of measuring the ballistic meteorological factors and
transmitting the data to battery positions via telephone on the day of the
attack. By the middle of 1918, each corps and front-line division had its own
metro station. Meteorological messages were sent four hours prior to the
start of any firing, and then every two hours.
What Pulkowski called besondern Einflüsse (Special Influences) were based
on the individual characteristics of each battery's guns and the nature of
the manufacturing lots of the ammunition. The wear of the individual gun
tube was a major factor, especially by the end of 1917, when most of
Germany's guns were in bad shape from years of constant firing. The Special
Influences were relatively constant and could be determined by periodically
test firing the guns at some location away from the line. Current-day
artillerymen call this process Calibration, and they now have the technical
capability to make such measurements in the course of firing actual missions.
Then as now, calibration results are most valid for the projectile and
propellant manufacturing lots used during the calibration firing. Pulkowski's
system required the careful sorting and allocating of ammo lots to ensure
uniformity of results.
In theory the Pulkowski Method would even produce firing results superior
to what could be achieved from a registration. Registrations were done with
one gun per battery and the results applied to all the other guns. That,
however, assumed that the muzzle velocity Ofeach gun tube was the same, or at
least similar. Under the best of circumstances that is a very shaky
assumption--let alone by the end of 1917. Pulkowski's Method, on the other
hand, used the exact muzzle velocity from each gun tube (as determined from
the calibration firing) to compute abattery average. If necessary, guns were
even shifted among batteries to achieve closer muzzle velocity groupings. The
Pulkowski Method was almost identical to the MET+VE system used by the U.S.
Army and several NATO armies today. The Daily Influences correspond to the
MET (Meteorological), and the Special Influences correspond to the VE
(Velocity Error)."